In a barrier reef system like the Florida Keys or Australia the reef track is slightly off the coastline and the coral reef is a boat’s drive from shore. However, Bonaire is surrounded by a fringing reef meaning that as soon as you walk into the water from the land you are at the reef! No need for a boat at all. And Bonaire has some of the best shore diving in the world.
The yellow-painted rocks shown below mark the names and locations of each dive/snorkel site. So all you have to do is drive your car or ride your bike 😉 and get in!
The coral reef is incredible! Notice the long trumpetfish and round angelfish hiding in the coral sea rods on the lower right photo below. Looking very close at the branching staghorn coral on the upper left, each little bump is an individual coral polyp or coral animal. At night time the coral polyp will extend their tiny tentacles from these little bumps to grab food floating in the water.
I love free diving down to photograph fish. The silver bar jack on the top left turns dark black when it is hunting (lower left). The bar jack often hunts over the shoulder of a goatfish and picks up small invertebrates that the goatfish may stir up from the bottom.
Watch out for sea urchins! The round animals below are covered in sharp spines and usually live on the ocean floor in the tidal zone where you enter the water. But if you simply look down and are careful about where you step these animals are easy to avoid. There are many different species of sea urchins and their spines may look like white tacks, long needles or even thick pencils.
Can you spot the little animals in the photo below? The first is a peanut-size mollusk (related to a snail) called a Flamingo Tongue shown in the photo on the left. This little animal feeds on sea fans and will eat large holes in the sea fan shown below. The second is a small transparent shrimp living in the anemone on the right. The shrimp and the anemone are symbiotic partners.
All the photos above were taken with a GoPro Hero 3 and a red underwater filter with an added macro lens.
Blue lights and blue light filter goggles were essential packing items on this beach camping trip. As the sun set below the horizon it was finally time to put these items to use. We were going hiking in search of scorpions!
Scorpions can be found in nearly every terrestrial habitat from caves to sand and even mountains. Bonaire is no exception. During my recent camping trip to Washington Slagbaai National Park we hoped to seek out these little arachnids.
Finding a tiny 4cm scorpion in a shrubby brush scattered with rocky crevices is a bit like a needle in a haystack. But scorpions have a little known ability that makes them surprisingly easy to find…they glow in blue light! More specifically scorpions fluoresce. They contain chemicals in their exoskeletons which absorb blue light and reemit it at another wavelength causing the appearance of glowing, just like a white t-shirt under a black light.
A short walk down our trail, while avoiding fallen cacti, we spotted our first scorpion. This guy seemed a bit shell shocked as we all gathered around to take photos.
By the end of the night we counted 8 scorpions. Some scuttled quickly and retreated into rocky holes, while others blatantly displayed their stingers as if challenging us to come closer. These scorpions might inflict a painful sting, but their venom is not particularly potent so the overall risk was minimal. Still finding one of these guys inside your sleeping bag at night is less than desirable. The solution: pack a blue light (or UV light) on your next camping trip and search for fluorescent scorpions on your own.
Why do scorpions fluoresce? We do not know. One theory holds that fluorescence may cue scorpions when it is safest to emerge to hunt, allowing them to avoid bright moonlight (which causes fluorescence) in addition to bright sunlight in daytime hours.
“The breeze at dawn has secrets to tell you. Don’t go back to sleep.”
When the sun rose the next morning, all the scorpions had retreated back into their crevices and we had a bit of time to snap some daylight photos in this beautiful national park before we returned to the CIEE Residence Hall. Scorpions hunting and beach camping made for a highly memorable trip.
Bon for ‘Bonaire’ and Doet meaning ‘doing’ or ‘to do’ in Dutch.
Bon Doet is the national day for volunteering on the island of Bonaire. Simultaneously various organizations, individuals, and student groups donated their time to improve the island through activities like beach clean ups and weeding cemeteries. I also joined the Bon Doet event but contributed my services underwater through the Coral Restoration Foundation.
Coral Restoration Foundation, based in Key Largo, Florida operates throughout the Caribbean including the island of Bonaire. This nonprofit organization raises baby corals in Christmas tree-like nurseries before transplanting the coral colonies to locations where the coral reef is degraded or absent but was previously abundant.
Selecting to corals breed in these nurseries is a complex process which includes testing the coral’s DNA to ensure that a diverse selection of coral genotypes are represented in each future coral garden. These coral fragments start out the size of a finger and grow to the size of a basketball over the course of 6 months to a year before being moved to the coral reef. While hanging in the nursery, the corals are cleaned each week by volunteers trained by the Coral Restoration Foundation.
In the coral reef ecosystem algae and coral compete for light and space. Therefore, volunteers will scrub the fishing lines and pcv pipe structures of each nursery to remove algal growth which can stunt the progress of the baby corals. With the moderate water currents carrying food and weekly cleanings by volunteers these baby corals are living in the marine equivalent of a 5-star resort.
Though it may sound like a mammoth effort for such a small animal, coral reefs provide a home to numerous fish, protect coastlines from wave action, and are even used for medical research projects. With so many long-term benefits I was happy to devote my time this morning to scuba diving with a scrubbing sponge and brush to remove algae from Bonaire’s future shoreline protection force.
And I learned a new method for attaching corals to a sandy bottom: bamboo poles zip tied together into a square with each corner hammered into the sand. This would be easy to implement in the Philippines too!
I was not sure what to expect when Martijn led Maddie and I onto a dirt road, inland and away from the ocean. I had been told we were going to an underwater cave, which I expected to mean a short cliff jump into the ocean and free diving down along the coastline to peer into an ocean cave before returning to the surface. I did not expect to leave my bicycle locked to an inland gate and hike through the shrubbery down to the mouth of a cave.
The descent into the cave required a bit of rock climbing. We lowered our bags, turned on our flashlights and carefully climbed down, finally reaching the water. Freshwater. This dark inland cave seemed narrow and small but as we donned our masks and snorkels for a swim one room led to another. Most of the water was shallow enough to stand but some pools were much deeper.
“Don’t pee,” Martijn instructed. This was a significantly challenging task. As a scuba diver, peeing in my wetsuit is usually my first step to getting warm when I hit the cold water. (Don’t worry the pee diffuses away. If this sounds gross you are clearly not a scuba diver. The longer you dive the more unavoidable it becomes.) Additionally, cold water actually increases your urge to pee. Your blood vessels constrict in cold water, which increases blood pressure. An easy way for the body to lower this pressure is by peeing. The official term for this phenomenon is cold immersion diuresis. Despite this increased urge, I did my best to refrain. The freshwater pool received only periodic circulation after intense rainfalls so I heeded Martijn’s advice.
Swimming further into the next room the water was deep enough for free diving.
“There is an underwater tunnel here. I will check it.” Martijn stated.
“Martijn!!!” Maddie and I exclaimed in protest. “Are you sure it’s here?” I asked.
The underwater tunnel was a 15-20 second breath hold and swim into another separate cavern of the cave. Martijn had done it before, but agreed to swim a practice dive down and back just to look for the exit to ensure his memory was correct. I followed him in a quick dive down and we shined our flashlights deeper into the tunnel.
“I’m going for it.” Martijn announced once we returned to the surface. Seconds later he dove again and kicked through the tunnel and out of view. ‘Did he make it?!’ I wondered. Only a few seconds after he left I saw his light shining back, confirming his success.
With a deep breath, I dove down and followed. Kick, kick, kick. I could see the walls of the tunnel all around me. As I cleared the midpoint I could see the shimmery surface of water with air above it. Martijn’s feet were also visible standing in the water. Made it!
Maddie opted to stay behind and shine her light to mark the proper way back. In the next cavern I was in for another surprise. This room had deep free diving well too. Diving down I couldn’t tell where the cave let out but it clearly connected to the ocean, because we could see the blurry swirls of salt water meeting freshwater once we dropped down past 10ft. After a few more dives to explore we swam back through the tunnel where Maddie was waiting.
“You have to try it!!!” I exclaimed as soon as I surfaced back on the other side. After a detailed recap of the tunnel swim and salt water well Maddie was convinced. This time I stayed behind as the light to mark the way.
It was entirely silent waiting there by myself. But I was not the only living creature in this cave. Shortly after they left, I started to feel little nips from cleaner shrimp or small fish on my toes. As the fish continued my pedicure, I closed my eyes and tried to imprint the tunnel passageway into my memory in case I returned again with another group of friends. When Maddie and Martijn swam back, we made our way to the exit.
“I have to pee so badly,” I admitted. My urge had grown increasingly noticeable while I was standing by myself and waiting.
With a guilty smile Martijn confessed, “I already did.”
“Martijn!!!” I admonished.
“I did too.” Maddie divulged.
“You guys! I’ve been waiting so long and you both just went ahead and did it,” I said. Perhaps the cave should have a warning sign that says, ‘Scuba Divers Not Welcome,’ because it seems we just can’t help it. My bladder was also significantly less full by the time we climbed back out. There will be more rain and all in all this adventure was a big success.
In Filipino culture each community has a weeklong fiesta full of parades, costumes, beauty pageants, fireworks, and roasted pigs. On the island of Bonaire a similar celebration known as Carnaval has this same spirit of feasting and drinking freely before subsequent budget-induced fasting in the months which follow.
Gathering on the streets to witness the parade was an interesting mix of Latino culture with salsa music blasting, Dutch residents interwoven among the locals, and tourist spectators stealing selfies with the passing floats. In the background a giant cruise ship stood along the ocean and overhead a drone captured the action from above.
Although this parade lacked the drumming that characterizes Filipino fiesta, the energy of Carnaval was evident as young children and tourists alike danced in the streets with the passing parade. The sidewalks in town were packed! But leaving town the streets felt oddly empty because everyone was gathered to watch the parade.
And the party did not stop after the Sunday afternoon parade finished. Two days later the paraders were at it again for round two, but this time under the stars with Christmas lights to illuminate their costumes. I tried to snap day and night versions of the best costumes and floats.
Take a close look at the photos above. Although I could not find the same bikini-clad, body glittered space cadet from the daylight photo, the woman in the background of photo one was my counterpart in the second nighttime photo.
SJ Byce as a Peace Corps Volunteer in the Philippines. And Intern at CIEE Bonaire '17